What do doctors do?  A list of 10 common medical specialties

What do doctors do? A list of 10 common medical specialties

When you need basic health care services, you can usually start with your primary care provider (PCP). PCPs give you regular checkups, recommend vaccinations, and provide assistance when you’re not feeling well.

But if you have a more complicated health issue or concern, you may need to see a specialist. Specialists are healthcare professionals with extra training and expertise in specific areas of medicine.

Here is a quick guide to some common specialties and what they cover:


  • Allergies and other immune conditions


  • Heart disease and other heart conditions


  • Skin issues, ranging from rashes and hives to psoriasis and skin cancer


  • Disorders related to the endocrine system, which uses hormones to control and coordinate growth, metabolism, and reproduction. Some endocrine conditions include diabetes, thyroid disease, infertility, metabolic disorders, osteoporosis, and some cancers.


  • The gastrointestinal tract or digestive system. Sometimes called gastrointestinal doctors, these specialists diagnose and treat conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), reflux, pancreatitis, and hepatitis C.


  • Disorders of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord and nerves.


  • Women’s health. Obstetrics is the field of medicine related to pregnancy and childbirth. Gynecology is the field of medicine that focuses on women’s health and reproductive care, including perimenopause and postmenopause.


  • Cancer. There are many different types of oncologists, such as those who specialize in surgery, medicine, or radiation.


  • Eye care and vision conditions. Ophthalmologists are not to be confused with optometrists, who perform eye exams and prescribe contact lenses and eyeglasses but aren’t doctors, or with opticians, who can fit you for contact lenses or eyeglasses once an ophthalmologist or optometrist texts you. a prescription.


  • The urinary system, including the bladder, kidneys, ureters and urethra.